After the Civil War, “Buffalo Soldiers” were the first African Americans to serve in the peace-time Army of the United States. Two cavalry regiments and four (later combined into two) infantry regiments were formed, with primarily white officers. The first Buffalo Soldiers were sent to the West in 1867 to protect settlers, cattle herds, and railroad crews, and to campaign against Native Americans. The African American units made up about 11 percent of the Army that served in the west through the frontier period. Stationed on the U.S. frontier from the 1860s to the 1890s, they played a significant role in the settlement and development of the American West. They also rose above many challenges to gain a reputation of dedication and bravery.