Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site
At dawn on November 29, 1864, some 700 soldiers from the US military attacked a peaceful encampment of Cheyenne and Arapaho along Big Sandy Creek in the southeastern Colorado Territory. Over 150 Indians were killed in the attack, most of whom were women, children, or elderly. The massacre profoundly influenced US-Indian relations and the structure of the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes. The exact location of the Sand Creek Massacre was obscured through time even to descendents of survivors. The Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Study Act of 1998 directed the National Park Service to identify the location and extent of the massacre area and the suitability of designating the site as a unit of the National Park Service system. The site was established as a National Park Service unit in 2007 following several years of research and cooperation between tribes, state and federal agencies, universities, and private landowners.